C++ Tutorial

Introduction to C++

  • C++ was developed by Bjarne Stroustrup in 1979 at Bell Labs.
  • It is a general purpose programming language which supports procedural, object-oriented and generic programming.
  • The main purpose of C++ was to make writing good programs easier and more pleasant for the individual programmer.
  • It is a high-level programming language, but it includes many low-level facilities to manipulate the computer's memory.
  • It is the first Object-oriented programming language and most popular after C language.
  • C++ is a superset of C.

Features of C++

  • C++ is a compiled, case-sensitive, free-form programming language.
  • It is used to write device drivers and other softwares.
  • It is used for teaching and research because of clean basic concepts.
  • It supports object-oriented programming including four features such as encapsulation, data hiding, inheritance, polymorphism.
  • An Apple Macintosh or Windows has indirectly used C++ because the primary user interface of these operating systems are written in C++.

ANSI

  • ANSI stands for American National Standards Institution.
  • If a program is written in ANSI C++, it guarantees to run on any computer whose supporting software conforms to the standard.
  • C++ includes ANSI standard as a core language and also includes extra machine-dependent features to allow smooth interaction with different computers' operating systems.
  • ANSI standard ensures that C++ is portable.

Character Set of C++

  • Character set is a set of valid characters.
  • It is a combination of alphabets, digits, special symbols and white spaces.
CharactersList Included
AlphabetsA – Z, a – z
Digits0 – 9
Special CharactersSpace  +  -  *  /  ^  \  ()  []  {}  =   !=  <>  '   “  $  ,  ;  :  %  !  &  ?  _  #  <=  >=  @
Formatting CharactersBackspace, Horizontal tab, Vertical tab, Form feed and Carriage return.