# JavaScript Control and Looping Structure

## 1. If  Statement

• IF statement is a conditional branching statement.
• In 'IF' statement, if the condition is true a group of statement is executed. And if the condition is false, the following statement is skipped.

#### Syntax : If statement

if(condition)
{
//Statement 1;
//Statement 2;
}

#### Example : Simple Program for IF Statement

<html>
<body>
<script type="text/javascript">
var num = prompt("Enter Number");
if (num > 0)
{
}
</script>
</body>
</html>

Output:

## 2. If – Else Statement

• If – Else is a two-way decision statement.
• It is used to make decisions and execute statements conditionally.
Flow Diagram of If – Else Statement

#### Syntax : If-Else statement

if (condition)
{
//Statement 1;
}
else if(condition)
{
//Statement 2;
}
else
{
//Statement 3;
}

#### Example : Simple Program for If-Else Statement

<html>
<script type="text/javascript">
var no = prompt("Enter a Number to find Odd or Even");
no = parseInt(no);
if (isNaN(no))
{
}
else if (no == 0)
{
}
else if (no % 2)
{
}
else
{
}
</script>
</html>

Output:

## 3. Switch Statement

• Switch is used to perform different actions on different conditions.
• It is used to compare the same expression to several different values.
Flow Diagram of Switch Statement

#### Syntax

switch(expression)
{
case condition 1:
//Statements;
break;
case condition 2:
//Statements;
break;
case condition 3:
//Statements;
break;
.
.
case condition n:
//Statements;
break;
default:
//Statement;
}

#### Example : Simple Program for Switch Statement

<html>
<script type="text/javascript">
var day = prompt("Enter a number between 1 and 7");
switch (day)
{
case (day="1"):
document.write("Sunday");
break;
case (day="2"):
document.write("Monday");
break;
case (day="3"):
document.write("Tuesday");
break;
case (day="4"):
document.write("Wednesday");
break;
case (day="5"):
document.write("Thursday");
break;
case (day="6"):
document.write("Friday");
break;
case (day="7"):
document.write("Saturday");
break;
default:
document.write("Invalid Weekday");
break;
}
</script>
</html>

Output:

## 4. For Loop

• For loop is a compact form of looping.

• It includes three important parts:
1. Loop Initialization
2. Test Condition
3. Iteration

• All these three parts come in a single line separated by semicolons(;).
Flow Diagram of 'For' Loop

#### Syntax

for(initialization; test-condition; increment/decrement)
{
//Statements;
}

#### Example : Palindrome Program using For Loop

<html>
<body>
<script type="text/javascript">
function palindrome()
{
var revstr = " ";
var strr = document.getElementById("strr").value;
var i = strr.length;
for(var j=i; j>=0; j--)
{
revstr = revstr+strr.charAt(j);
}
if(strr == revstr)
{
}
else
{
alert(strr+" - is not a Palindrome");
}
}
</script>
<form>
Enter a String or Number: <input type="text" id="strr" name="checkpalindrome"><br>
<input type="submit" value="Check" onclick="palindrome();">
</form>
</body>
</html>

Output:

## 5. For-in Loop

• For-in loop is used to traverse all the properties of an object.
• It is designed for looping through arrays.

#### Syntax

for (variable_name in Object)
{
//Statements;
}

## 6. While Loop

• While loop is an entry-controlled loop statement.
• It is the most basic loop in JavaScript.
• It executes a statement repeatedly as long as expression is true.
• Once the expression becomes false, the loop terminates.
Flow Diagram of While Loop

#### Syntax

while (condition)
{
//Statements;
}

#### Example : Fibonacci Series Program using While Loop

<html>
<body>
<script type="text/javascript">
var no1=0,no2=1,no3=0;
document.write("Fibonacci Series:"+"<br>");
while (no2<=10)
{
no3 = no1+no2;
no1 = no2;
no2 = no3;
document.write(no3+"<br>");
}
</script>
</body>
</html>

Output:

## 7. Do-While Loop

• Do-While loop is an exit-controlled loop statement.
• Similar to the While loop, the only difference is condition will be checked at the end of the loop.
• The loop is executed at least once, even if the condition is false.
Flow Diagram of Do – While

#### Syntax

do
{
//Statements;
}
while(condition);

#### Example : Simple Program on Do-While Loop

<html>
<body>
<script type ="text/javascript">
var i = 0;
do
{
document.write(i+"<br>")
i++;
}
while (i <= 5)
</script>
</body>
</html>

Output:
0
1
2
3
4
5

## Difference between While Loop and Do – While Loop

While LoopDo – While Loop
In while loop, first it checks the condition and then executes the program.In Do – While loop, first it executes the program and then checks the condition.
It is an entry – controlled loop.It is an exit – controlled loop.
The condition will come before the body.The condition will come after the body.
If the condition is false, then it terminates the loop.It runs at least once, even though the conditional is false.
It is a counter-controlled loop.It is a iterative control loop.

## 8. Break Statement

• Break statement is used to jump out of a loop.
• It is used to exit a loop early, breaking out of the enclosing curly braces.
Syntax:
break;

Flow Diagram of Break Statement

## 9. Continue Statement

• Continue statement causes the loop to continue with the next iteration.
• It skips the remaining code block.
Flow Diagram of Continue Statement

Syntax:
continue;