Three Level Architecture of DBMS

Following are the three levels of database architecture,

1. Physical Level
2. Conceptual Level
3. External Level

three levels database architecture

In the above diagram,
  • It shows the architecture of DBMS.
  • Mapping is the process of transforming request response between various database levels of architecture.
  • Mapping is not good for small database, because it takes more time.
  • In External / Conceptual mapping, DBMS transforms a request on an external schema against the conceptual schema.
  • In Conceptual / Internal mapping, it is necessary to transform the request from the conceptual to internal levels.
1. Physical Level
  • Physical level describes the physical storage structure of data in database.
  • It is also known as Internal Level.
  • This level is very close to physical storage of data.
  • At lowest level, it is stored in the form of bits with the physical addresses on the secondary storage device.
  • At highest level, it can be viewed in the form of files.
  • The internal schema defines the various stored data types. It uses a physical data model.
2. Conceptual Level
  • Conceptual level describes the structure of the whole database for a group of users.
  • It is also called as the data model.
  • Conceptual schema is a representation of the entire content of the database.
  • These schema contains all the information to build relevant external records.
  • It hides the internal details of physical storage.
3. External Level
  • External level is related to the data which is viewed by individual end users.
  • This level includes a no. of user views or external schemas.
  • This level is closest to the user.
  • External view describes the segment of the database that is required for a particular user group and hides the rest of the database from that user group.